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    LES PERES BLANCS 1868 – 1892 DEPUIS L’ORIGINE DE LA SOCIETE JUSQU’A LA MORT DU FONDATEUR
    (Fides Caritas Spes, 1901) Duchêne, Le Père Lucien; Rutazibwa, Privat; Minnaert, Le Père, Stefaan
    Le Père Lucien Duchêne (1857-1934) est le premier Père Blanc (Missionnaire d’Afrique) qui a écrit une histoire de sa Société missionnaire. Son œuvre fut publiée en trois tomes au début du 20e siècle, entre 1901 et 1903. Elle couvre la période de 1868 jusqu’à la mort de Mgr Lavigerie, fondateur des Pères Blancs, en 1892. Dans son œuvre, le P. Duchêne fait souvent référence aux documents qu’il avait consulté dans les archives. Il était habité par le souci de raconter la vérité. Il évite aussi les interprétations qui pourraient influencer le lecteur. Plus tard des historiens parmi les Pères Blancs écriront leurs « histoires » plutôt au service de l’image de leur société. Ils embelliront la réalité pour encourager des jeunes à devenir missionnaires et aussi pour susciter la générosité de leurs bienfaiteurs. Certains penseront même à une éventuelle canonisation de leur fondateur, le cardinal Lavigerie.
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    LA COVID 19 DANS LA VILLE DE TOUBA : DE LA RÉSISTANCE À LA RÉSILIENCE COMMUNAUTAIRE.
    (harmattan, Sénégal, 2023-10-05) TOURE, Mamadou Ndong
    This article comes from the research project "Transmission of Covid 19 in Senegal: analysis of the socio-spatial dynamics of the factors of propagation in the region of Dakar and the town of Touba", implemented by the LEIDI Laboratory of the Gaston Berger University from 2021 to 2022 (02 years). It analyses the problem of community perception of the COVID-19 pandemic and its evolution in the town of Touba. It takes stock of the factors involved in resistance to and denial of the disease, and of the occupational categories most affected (commerce and transport). The overall aim of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of the community dynamics that prevailed during the Covid 19 pandemic in the city of Touba. Specifically, the aim is to question community players about their perception of the disease, and then the characteristics that explain the spread of the pandemic, particularly in terms of trade and transport. The methodology is based on the overall methodology of the research project mentioned above. The tools of the Active Participatory Research Method were favoured because of their ability to capture socio-economic realities through focus groups, interviews and testimonials, which we combined with a survey of 500 individuals from different socio-professional categories. The main findings are that community-based approaches should be favoured to deal with pandemics and future epidemics. Community transmission is generally linked to the precarious living conditions of a population that is often hard-working and obliged to travel every day in search of daily expenses in places open to the public, notably markets and bus stations.
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    Structural Transfer In Third Language Acquisition: The Case Of Lingala-French Speakers Acquiring English
    (2018-05-23) Mwamba Kabasele, Philothé
    This paper tests the claims of Cumulative Enhancement Model, the ‘l2 status factor’, and the Typological Primacy Model in investigating how l1 Lingala, l2 French speakers express in English an event which took place and was completed in the past. The linguistic phenomena understudy informs us that English uses the simple past in a past-completed event while French and Lingala use the ‘passé composé’ and the remote or recent past, respectively. The study circumscribes the tense similarities and differences between the three languages. The paper strives to answer the questions on which previously acquired language between the l1, l2, or both l1 & l2 overrides in l3 syntactic transfer. The paper aims to determine whether the l2 is the privileged source of syntactic transfer even when the l1 offers syntactic similarities with the l3. Finally, the study purports to determine whether subjects are more accurate when communicating in explicit mode than in implicit mode. That is, the study further aims to investigate whether subjects make less transfer errors in a task that promotes reliance on explicit knowledge than they do in task that promotes reliance on implicit knowledge. The findings of the study show that subjects used the simple past tense in the context of a past-completed event. The use of the simple past tense in the context of a past-completed event might be attributed to transfer from the l1 or might be considered as a consequence of positive learning. The results further show that subjects have transferred more explicit knowledge than implicit. And the results have ruled out the l2-status factor claim that the l2 is the privileged source of transfer in l3 acquisition.
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    How fair is gender-fair language? Insights from gender ratio estimations in French
    (2022-02-10) Xiao, Hualin; Strickland, Brent; Peperkamp, Sharon
    Heated societal debates in various countries concern the use of gender-fair language, meant to replace the generic use of grammatically masculine forms. Advocates and opponents of gender-fair language disagree on – among other things – the question of whether masculine forms leave women underrepresented in people’s minds. We investigated the influence of linguistic form on the mental representations of gender in French. Participants read a short text about a professional gathering and estimated the percentages of men and women present at the gathering. Results showed higher estimates of the percentage of women in response to two gender-fair forms relative to the masculine form. Comparisons with normed data on people’s perception of real-world gender ratios additionally showed that the gender-fair forms removed or reduced a male bias for neutral- and female-stereotyped professions, respectively, yet induced a female bias for male-stereotyped professions. Thus, gender-fair language increases the prominence of women in the mind, but has varying effects on consistency, i.e., the match with default perceptions of real-world gender ratios.
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    Phonological Adaptation Of The Belgian French Vowels In Kinshasa Lingala
    (2022-07-26) Kabasele, Philothé Mwamba
    This study provides a systematic analysis of vowel sound adaptations in KL with evidence from acoustic phonetics. The research is restricted to the phonological adaptations of vowel sounds from Belgian French (BF). It provides evidence from loan data on the existence of the contrastive features [±ATR] in KL phonological system. Questions raised include: does the phonological system of KL take precedence in the phonological adaptation process of the loanwords? Does similarity play a role in the adaptation of the loanwords? What happens when the foreign input does not offer any similarity with the phonological system of the recipient language (RL)? what happens when a feature/feature combination (FC) in a foreign input vowel either presents similarities with a feature/FC in the RL phonological system, or else does not present any similarities to any feature or FC in the phonological system of the RL? The data were extracted in a sentential context with a carrier sentence. Participants filled in the dots with the missing word that was suggested by the picture. The F1 and the F2 measurement values, in hertz (Hz) were taken at three different points of the vowel spectrogram. The script also generated the average measurement values which were considered as input for statistical analysis. The null hypothesis (Ho) predicts that BF [ɛ, œ, ø] would be adapted as [e] (Ho: [ɛ] = [e], [œ] = [e], and [ø] = [e]) in KL, while the alternative hypothesis (H1) predicts that the BF vowels [ɛ, œ, ø] would not be adapted as [e] (H1: [ɛ] ≠ [e], [œ] ≠ [e], and [ø] ≠ [e]) in KL. The Ho predicts that [ɔ] will be adapted as [o] (Ho: [ɔ] = [o]). Due to correlated nature of the data, Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to determine the degree of significant differences between two/more targeted variables. The findings have shown that KL speakers still discriminate between [ɛ] and [e], and [ɔ] and [o], which implies the existence of the underlying contrast between the features [+ATR] and [−ATR].
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    Effective bilingual education in Francophone West Africa: Constraints and possibilities
    (2023-03-24) Ball, Mary-Claire; Bhattacharya, Jasodhara; Zhao, Hui; Akpe, Yapo, Hermann; Brogno, Stephanie; Jasińska, Kaja
    Bilingual education that incorporates a local language alongside the official language has become an increasingly common approach in sub-Saharan Africa for improving literacy rates and learning outcomes. Evidence suggests that bilingual instruction is largely associated with positive learning and literacy outcomes globally (Bühmann & Trudell, 2007; Takam & Fassé, 2020). However, the adoption of bilingual education does not guarantee positive learning outcomes (e.g., Ball et al., 2022). This paper reviews bilingual programs in sub-Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on programs in six Francophone West African countries (Niger, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon). We identified factors critical to high-quality and effective bilingual programs. Implementation factors, such as teacher training and classroom resources, and socio-cultural factors, such as perceptions of local languages in education, constrain and contribute to the quality of bilingual education. These insights may help inform policy-makers and other stakeholders seeking to improve bilingual education programs in Francophone West Africa and other contexts.
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    Individual Differences in Leveraging Regularity in Emergent L2 Readers in Rural Côte d’Ivoire
    (2023-03-29) Brice, Henry; Zinszer, Benjamin; Kablan, Danielle; Tanoh, Fabrice; Nana, Konan; Jasińska, Kaja
    Purpose: Statistical learning (SL) approaches to reading maintain that proficient reading requires assimilation of the rich statistical regularities in the writing system. Reading skills in developing first- and second-language readers in English have been shown to be predicted by individual differences in sensitivity to statistical regularities in orthography and semantics, with good readers relying more on orthographic consistency, and less on semantic associations. However, the study of SL and its relation to reading has been primarily studied in English readers in WEIRD countries, limiting the universality of our theories. Method: We examine individual differences in sensitivity to regularities utilising a word naming task in emergent French readers in rural communities in Côte d’Ivoire (N=134). Results: We show that, in contrast to previous studies, in our cohort better readers leverage semantic associations more strongly, while individual differences in sensitivity to orthographic consistency did not predict reading skill. Relatively little variance in reading skill was explained by sensitivity to these regularities. Conclusion: This showcases the importance of cross-linguistic and cross-cultural research to back up universal theories of literacy, and suggests that current SL accounts of reading must be updated to account for this variance in reading skills.
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    Open Peer Reviewers in Africa Guide du formateur
    (2023-01-05) Munene, Aurelia; Saderi, Daniela; Havemann, Jo; Owango, Joy; Ngugi, Joyce Wangari; Alsop, Shane; Dine, Roseline Dzekem; DIA, Aboubakry; Onwuchekwa, Godwyns
    Ce guide du formateur est destiné à aider les chercheurs et les professionnels qui souhaitent devenir formateurs pour la série d’ateliers Pairs évaluateurs ouverts pour l’Afrique développée en collaboration avec AfricArXiv, Eider Africa, eLife, PREreview et Training Center in Communication en Afrique et financée par le Wellcome Trust. Pour être formateur, nous vous recommandons d’avoir vous-même assisté à l’atelier en tant que stagiaire de cohorte. Le matériel et les ressources en rapport avec l’atelier sont liés à l’intérieur. Notre objectif est d’établir un modèle de formateur de formateurs (ToT) dans lequel les participants à l’atelier sont encouragés et habilités à mobiliser, recruter et former des collègues dans leurs communautés savantes respectives. Le présent guide n’est pas destiné à être prescriptif sur la façon dont les apprenants devraient mener leur formation. Nous vous encourageons à considérer le contenu comme des suggestions pour votre propre formation et n’hésitez pas à l’adapter à vos besoins et à votre situation Divulgation : ces traductions ont été effectuées par Roseline Dzekem DINE. Ce contenu constitue un modèle. Il est destiné à être adapté au public et à la culture, tous les exemples utilisés peuvent ne pas être pertinents ou appropriés.
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    Modèle de diapositives du Module I de l'Atelier ouvert destiné aux pairs évaluateurs pour l'Afrique
    (2023-01-05) Munene, Aurelia; Saderi, Daniela; Havemann, Johanna; Obanda, Johanssen; Owango, Joy; Ngugi, Joyce Wangari; Korzec, Kornelia; Outa, Nicholas; Dine, Roseline Dzekem; Dia, Aboubakry; Onwuchekwa, Godwyns
    Ce modèle de diapositive, disponible en format .pdf et .pptx, a été développé dans le contexte d’un projet financé par le Wellcome Trust et vise à piloter une série d’ateliers en trois parties intitulée Atelier ouvert aux pairs évaluateurs pour l’Afrique. Ce jeu est le deuxième des deux diapositives du module I à notre disposition. Vous trouverez des détails sur l’atelier et des informations sur la façon de gérer votre propre version de l’atelier dans le Guide du formateur. Divulgation : ces traductions ont été effectuées par Roseline Dzekem Dine. Ce contenu constitue un modèle. Il est destiné à être adapté au public et à la culture, tous les exemples utilisés peuvent ne pas être pertinents ou appropriés.
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    Modèle des diapositives du Module II de l'Atelier ouvert pour l'Afrique
    (2023-01-05) Munene, Aurelia; Saderi, Daniela; Havemann, Johanna; Obanda, Johanssen; Owango, Joy; Ngugi, Joyce Wangari; Korzec, Kornelia; Dine, Roseline Dzekem; Dia, Aboubakry; Onwuchekwa, Godwyns
    Ce modèle de diapositive, disponible en format .pdf et .pptx, a été développé dans le contexte d’un projet financé par le Wellcome Trust et vise à piloter une série d’ateliers en trois parties intitulée Atelier ouvert aux pairs évaluateurs pour l’Afrique. Ce modèle est le premier des deux diapositives du module II à notre disposition. Vous trouverez des détails sur l’atelier et des informations relatives sur la façon de gérer votre propre version de l’atelier dans le Guide du formateur. Divulgation : ces traductions ont été effectuées par Roseline Dzekem Dine. Ce contenu constitue un modèle. Il est destiné à être adapté au public et à la culture, tous les exemples utilisés peuvent ne pas être pertinents ou appropriés.
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    Modèle du Module III de l'Atelier ouvert pour l'Afrique
    (2023-01-13) Munene, Aurelia; Korzec, Kornelia; Ngugi, Joyce Wangari; Owango, Joy; Obanda, Johanssen; Havemann, Jo; Saderi, Daniela
    Ce modèle de document, disponible en format pdf et docx, a été développé dans le cadre d'un projet financé par le Wellcome Trust pour piloter une série d'ateliers en trois parties intitulée Open Peer Reviewers in Africa. Le présent document a pour but de permettre aux facilitateurs de diriger un club de revue des prépublications dans le cadre du Module III de l'atelier - Le modèle de diapositive des Modules I dans le document; et II sont disponibles dans le document. Des détails sur l'atelier et des informations sur la méthode d'organisation de votre propre version de l'atelier sont disponibles dans le Guide du Formateur. Divulgation : ces traductions ont été effectuées par Roseline Dzekem DINE. Ce contenu constitue un modèle. Il est destiné à être adapté au public et à la culture, tous les exemples utilisés peuvent ne pas être pertinents ou appropriés.